新航道深圳学校 > 雅思 > 雅思阅读 > 雅思阅读难句分析之分割结构


来源:新航道深圳学校    浏览:    发布日期:2018-04-17 16:49:22


  如:The best books are treasuries of good words,the golden thoughts,which,remembered and cherished,become our constant companions and comforters.不难看出which become our constant companions and comforters原本是一个整体,被用作状语的过去分词remembered and cherished分割开。常见的分割结构形式有同位语或同位语从句与先行词的分割,定语或and定语从句与先行词的分割,主语与谓语的分割,谓语与宾语的分割。使用分割结构的目的是使语句结构平衡,避免头重脚轻,或者为了使表达的主题思想更加突出醒目,读起来更通顺流畅。分割结构的存在说明了英语在结构形式和表达方法上的生动性和灵活性,但也造成了句子结构的错综复杂。对于分割结构,只有从结构上和语意上弄清它才能避免理解上的错误,英译汉时要把原来属于一个整体部分的意义译出。

  如:An unusual present was given to him for his birthday,a book on ethics.过生日的时候他得到了一件不寻常的礼物——一本关于伦理道德的书。(present和a book被分隔)

  再如:After Galileo's work the feeling grew that there were universal laws governing the motion of bodies and that these laws might apply to motion in the heavens as well as on earth.在伽利略著作之后,这样的认识加强了,即认为存在着支配物体运动的普遍规律,这些规律不仅支配着地球上的也支配着天体上的物体的运动。(the feeling和that从句被分隔)


  1. Such a viewpoint,particularly prominent in the developing countries,is reinforced by the widely-held belief that it is not the peaceful application of nuclear energy that is endangering the survival of mankind.

  第一层:Such a viewpoint,主particularly prominent in the developing定 countries,is系 reinforced表 by the widely-held belief状 that it is not the peaceful application of nuclear energy that is end-同位语从句angering the survival of mankind.

  第二层:(同位语从句)that引 it形主is not系 the peaceful application强调主语of nuclear energy定 that引 is endangering谓 the survival宾 of mankind.定

  要点本句主干为Such a viewpoint…… is reinforced by the widely-held belief;形容词短语particularly prominent in the developing countries,作为插入语修饰viewpoint,将主语和谓语分隔开来;介词短语by the widely-held belief是被动语态reinforced的行为主体;that it is……mankind是belief的同位语从句,这里还含有一个强调句式,即it is not the peaceful application……that is endangering……。


  2. No girl should marry a man whose last name has the same initial as hers,for,as the rhyme goes,Change the name but not the letter,marry for worse instead of better.

  第一层:No girl主 should marry谓 a man宾 whose last name has the same initial as hers,定语从句for,as the rhyme goes,Change状语从句the name but not the letter,marry for worse instead of better.

  第二层:(定语从句)whose引 last name主 has谓 the same initial宾 as hers定

  (状语从句)for,引as the rhyme goes,状Change谓 the name宾 but连 not the letter,宾marry谓 for worse instead of better.状

  要点这是个主从复合句。for是连接词,引导状语从句。as the rhyme goes是插入语,插在for和它引导的从句之间,造成for和它引导的从句的分离,翻译时,可译成一个主谓结构。


  3. Nor,if regularity and conformity to a standard pattern are as desirable to the scientist as the writing of his papers would appear to reflect,is management to be blamed for discriminating against the odd balls among researchers in favor of more conventional thinkers who work well with the team.

  要点否定词nor放在句首时,主谓倒装。is放到了主语management前。同时,if引导的条件状语从句置于nor与句子的其他成分之间,造成了句子的割裂状态。条件状语从句中as desirable…… as the writing……可视为同级比较结构。句中who引导的定语从句修饰先行词thinkers,可采用合译的方法翻译。be blamed for为固定短语,意为“因…而受指责”。in favor of ……在句中做状语。


  4. I have discovered,as perhaps Kelsey will after her much-publicized resignation from the editorship of She after a build-up of stress,that abandoning the doctrine of juggling your life,and making the alternative move into downshifting brings with it far greater rewards than financial success and social status.

  要点本句中as perhaps Kelsey will……引导的方式状语从句放到了主句的谓语动词discovered与that引导的宾语从句之间,从而造成动宾之间的分割。as引导的从句中省略了谓语动词discover,是为了避免重复。宾语从句中主语为abandoning……and making……并列的动名词短语;谓语为bring sth with sth结构,只是因宾语过长,而把with短语提前了。


  5. Such an outcome,if it happens,could cause a political controversy;or it could lead to more power being transferred to the EU in the worst possible circumstances,namely when the Union is deeply unpopular.

  要点这是个复合句。条件从句因为太短,置于主句的主谓之间,造成句子割裂,翻译时应将从句提到句首。namely when the……unpopular是一个状语从句,用来解释the worst possible circumstances.the EU:the European Union,欧盟。


  6. That fact,let alone the current division between the 11 euro countries and the four,led by Britain,that have not joined,is likely to mean that the Union should become a multi-system entity,with some countries signing up to everything and others choosing only some things.

  要点句子的主干结构是That fact…… is likely to mean that……。with some countries signing up to everything and others choosing only some things是“with +复合结构”形式,表示伴随状态。短语let alone……not joined置于主谓之间,造成句子割裂,翻译时应将其还原,放在最后。分词短语led by Britain和定语从句that have not joined都修饰the four.euro:欧元。multi-:前缀,表示“多…的”,如mutilateral,多边的:multiple,多个的。


  7. This trend began during the Second World War,when several governments came to the conclusion that the specific demands that a government wants to make of its scientific establishment cannot generally be foreseen in detail.

  要点该句的主干结构是This trend began during the Second World War,when……。when引导定语从句,修饰the Second World War.that the specific……detail是conclusion的同位语从句,在该从句中,主语是the specific demands of its scientific establishment,that a government wants to make是demands的定语从句。该定语从句放在其先行词demands和of介词短语之间,造成句子的割裂。翻译时,可把被割裂的部分还原。


  8. Observations were made of the children at the beginning and at the end of preschool and first grade.

  要点整个of短语作observations的定语,相当于Observations of the children at the beginning and at the end of preschool and first grade were made.因为定语太长,所以将其置于动词之后,以避免句子头重脚轻。这样就造成了句子的割裂,翻译时应将被割裂的部分还原。preschool:学前的。


  9. Whether to use tests,other kinds of information,or both in a particular situation depends,therefore,upon the evidence from experience concerning comparative validity and upon such factors as cost and availability.

  要点这是一个简单句。Whether to……situation是本句的主语,depends是谓语动词,两个upon后面是宾语。availability在句中是指“测试和信息容易得到或找到”。therefore是副词,插在depends和upon……之间,造成它们在结构上的割裂。翻译时,可把therefore提到句首。


  10. I have been transformed from a passionate advocate of the philosophy of having it all,preached by Linda Kelsey for the past seven years in the page of She magazine,into a woman who is happy to settle for a bit of everything.

  要点该句的主干结构是I have been transformed from a passionate advocate of the philosophy of having it all……into a woman……。preached by……magazine是过去分词短语,作the philosophy of having it all的定语,插在from……into之中,造成了句子的割裂。翻译时,可把分词短语译成一个分句,其他照原文顺序翻译。



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